News

Gastroenterology

IBD survey accurately captures patient-reported symptoms

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/4/2019

The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Symptom Inventory accurately captures patient-reported symptoms and can be used to monitor patients in clinic or research settings, researchers from Canada report.

Esophageal reflux common after sleeve gastrectomy

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/4/2019

About one in four patients will develop gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after sleeve gastrectomy, but few will require conversion to gastric bypass for severe reflux, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endoscopic surveillance finds unsuspected carcinomas in predisposed individuals

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 10/4/2019

Endoscopic surveillance can identify unsuspected signet-ring-cell carcinoma in individuals predisposed to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) by virtue of pathogenic variants in CDH1, researchers report.

Infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 noninferior in active Crohn's disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 9/4/2019

The infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 is noninferior to infliximab for treating patients with active Crohn's disease, according to a randomized controlled trial.

Colorectal cancer screening beginning at age 45 years could be cost-effective

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 5/4/2019

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening beginning at age 45 years instead of 50 years for average-risk individuals is likely cost-effective, researchers report.

Endoscopic clip closure after large polyp resection in right colon reduces bleeding

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 3/4/2019

Endoscopic clip closure after resection of large sessile polyps in the proximal colon reduced the risk of post-procedure bleeding in a multicenter randomized trial, researchers say.

New monitoring system reduces blind spots during esophagogastroduodenoscopy

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 1/4/2019

The new WISENSE monitoring system reduces blind-spot rates during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), researchers from China report.

Glepaglutide treatment promising in short-bowel syndrome

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 29/3/2019

The novel long-acting glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue glepaglutide appears to improve intestinal function in patients with short-bowel syndrome, according to a small randomized trial.

Similar participation rates with 2 brands of fecal immunochemical test

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/3/2019

Two brands of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs), FOB-Gold and OC-Sensor, are associated with similar colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation despite small differences in ease of use, Dutch researchers report.

Reduced-dose combo treatment helps some with metastatic colorectal cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 26/3/2019

Reduced-dose combination chemotherapy improves progression-free survival, compared with full-dose monotherapy, in older vulnerable patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), according to results from the phase II NORDIC9 trial.

Partial fundoplication may have edge in treating GERD

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/3/2019

In surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), partial fundoplication (PF) prompts less dysphagia than total fundoplication (TF), according to randomized trial results reported by Scandinavian researchers.

Optical technologies unreliable at diagnosing pre-cancerous colorectal polyps

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 14/3/2019

The accuracy of optical technologies in differentiating cancerous from benign tissue is "insufficient" for most routine clinical applications, including diagnosing pre-cancerous colorectal polyps, researchers say.

Early-onset colorectal cancer has distinct clinical and genetic features

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 13/3/2019

Colorectal cancer that is diagnosed before age 50 has clinical and genetic features that differ from those seen in colorectal cancer diagnosed later in life, according to new research.

T cell clonal expansion linked to postop recurrence of Crohn's in smokers

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 11/3/2019

Among smokers with Crohn's disease, increased T cell clonal expansion, especially in the CD8 compartment, is exaggerated and is associated with an increased rate of disease recurrence after ileocolonic resection, according to results from the REMIND Study Group.

Extended lymph node dissection safe in gastroesophageal carcinoma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 8/3/2019

Extended lymphadenectomy (LAD) to improve staging accuracy for gastroesophageal carcinoma (GEC) can be done safely, according to a new case series.

Misdiagnosis of young-onset colorectal cancer common

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 7/3/2019

Many patients younger than age 50 who develop colorectal cancer are initially misdiagnosed, leading to a more advanced stage of disease when it is detected, according to a new study.

New risk score helps predict intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn's disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 5/3/2019

A new, five-parameter risk score accurately predicts intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn's disease (CD) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), researchers from Israel report.

Beta-cell sensitivity reduced after gastric bypass surgery

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 4/3/2019

After gastric bypass surgery, beta-cells in nondiabetic patients are less sensitive to insulinotropic gut hormones, researchers report.

Model finds bariatric surgery cost-effective in NASH

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 1/3/2019

Bariatric surgery could extend life expectancy and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) cost-effectively in overweight and obese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a new modeling study suggests.

Sleeve gastrectomy may be safer than gastric bypass for IBD patients

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/2/2019

Most obese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fare well after bariatric surgery, but gastric bypass could make Crohn's disease harder to control, new research suggests.

Fecal immunochemical tests useful for colorectal-cancer screening

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 26/2/2019

One-time fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) can be useful for identifying colorectal cancer (CRC), but they lack sensitivity for advanced adenomatous polyps, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Weight-loss surgery can bring lasting improvement in sexual function

(Reuters Health) - 22/2/2019

Weight-loss surgery has more benefits than simply slimming a patient down, it may also result in lasting improvements to sexual functioning, a new study suggests.

High-fat diet adversely affects gut microbiota

By Will Boggs MD - 22/2/2019

Higher-fat diets have unfavorable effects on gut microbiota, fecal metabolites and plasma proinflammatory factors, researchers from China report.

Routine diversion after sphincter-sparing rectal surgery tied to poorer outcomes

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 22/2/2019

Routine diversion after sphincter-sparing rectal cancer resection does not reduce anastomotic leaks and is associated with more reinterventions, readmissions, and higher costs, according to a database study.

Laparoscopic gastrectomy outcome comparable to open surgery

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 13/2/2019

Patients with stage I gastric cancer who undergo laparoscopic distal gastrectomy have long-term-survival rates similar to those who have open distal gastrectomy, according to a clinical trial from South Korea.

Heavier red meat consumption tied to higher NAFLD risk

(Reuters Health) - 13/2/2019

People who eat a lot of animal protein may be more likely to have excessive fat in their livers and a higher risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) than individuals whose main source of protein is vegetables, a Dutch study suggests.

Treg cells show promise as immunotherapy for Crohn's disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 13/2/2019

Crohn's disease (CD) symptoms may be reduced if an agonist of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) can be used to traffic T-regulatory (Treg) cells to inflamed intestinal tissues, researchers suggest.

GLP-1 enhances insulin secretion after bariatric surgery

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/2/2019

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays a major role in driving enhanced insulin secretion following bariatric surgery, researchers from the U.K. report.

Surgery may curb risk of recurrent adhesive small-bowel obstruction

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 8/2/2019

Surgical intervention reduces the risk that adhesive small-bowel obstruction (aSBO) will recur, whether it's done at the index episode or during recurrent episodes, researchers say.

Collagen signature helps predict lymph-node metastasis in gastric cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 7/2/2019

In patients with early gastric cancer the collagen signature in the tumor microenvironment is an independent indicator of lymph-node metastasis, according to Chinese researchers.

Aspirin, anticoagulants up rate of false positives with FIT for colorectal cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 7/2/2019

Regular use of aspirin or anticoagulants reduces the positive predictive value (PPV) of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for detecting colorectal cancer and advanced adenomas, researchers from Norway report.

Recurrence risk constant after ablation in Barrett's esophagus

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 5/2/2019

Diligent surveillance remains important after remission of intestinal metaplasia (CRIM) following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in Barrett's esophagus, researchers say.

Glycemic control tied to better outcome of anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic macular edema

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 1/2/2019

Strong glycemic control may optimize vision outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy, researchers say.

Multiple infliximab doses better for acute severe ulcerative colitis

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 1/2/2019

As salvage therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis refractory to corticosteroids, multiple infliximab doses are superior to a single dose for improving colectomy-free survival, according to a new systematic review and meta-analysis.

Azathioprine ups pancreatitis risk in pediatric IBD

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 31/1/2019

Azathioprine is associated with a six-fold increased risk of acute pancreatitis in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), new research shows.

Adding vedolizumab to steroids may boost response, remission in Crohn's disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 30/1/2019

In patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who've been taking stable doses of steroids, adding vedolizumab may help induce a clinical response or remission, researchers say.

Postpartum substance abuse, mood disorders more common with IBD

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 25/1/2019

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Crohn's disease in particular, is associated with an increased risk of postpartum mood disorders and substance abuse, new findings in the journal Gut show.

Soluble fiber may improve diabetes control

(Reuters Health) - 24/1/2019

People with diabetes who take soluble fiber supplements have slightly lower blood sugar than their peers who don't add this type of fiber to their diets, a research review finds.

Younger, more insulin-sensitive T2DM patients benefit most from intensive insulin

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 23/1/2019

Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes can experience long-term glycemic remission with intensive insulin treatment - but this effect is more likely in younger patients and those with lower post-treatment glucose levels, according to new findings in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

NAFLD in adolescent boys improves with low sugar diet

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 22/1/2019

Adolescent boys on a "low free sugar" diet show significant improvements in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to results from an 8-week randomized clinical trial.

Hyperglycemia tied to higher fracture risk in elderly Japanese men

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 17/1/2019

Community-dwelling elderly men with hyperglycemia are at elevated risk of osteoporotic fracture, according to Japanese researchers.

Fecal-microbiota transplant boosts ulcerative colitis remission

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 16/1/2019

Anaerobically prepared fecal-microbiota transplantation (FMT) improved remission rates in adults with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) in a randomized trial.

Fecal-microbiota transplant beats antibiotics for recurrent C diff

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 16/1/2019

Fecal-microbiota transplantation (FMT) is superior to 10 days of fidaxomicin or vancomycin for resolving recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), according to results from a randomized open-label clinical trial.

Complications fewer, survival unaffected by less-invasive esophageal cancer surgery

(Reuters Health) - 9/1/2019

In patients with esophageal cancer, laparoscopic abdominal surgery combined with an open thoracotomy - i.e., hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy - produces 77% fewer major complications than open esophagectomy without lowering survival, according to a study of more than 200 French patients reported January 9 online in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Serology an increasingly important indicator of celiac disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 9/1/2019

Serology has gained importance in the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), due to improvements in assay performance over the last decade, according to updated advice for clinical practice.

Advanced endoscopic techniques improve IBD assessment

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 8/1/2019

Advanced endoscopic techniques allow for better assessment of mucosal healing and dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a new review.

Need for bariatric revision varies by primary operation

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 2/1/2019

Bariatric reoperations are more common after banding and vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) than after gastric bypass (GBP), according to long-term follow-up of participants in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

Infectious diseases

London HIV patient becomes world's second AIDS cure hope

LONDON (Reuters) - 5/3/2019

An HIV-positive man in Britain has become the second known adult worldwide to be cleared of the AIDS virus after he received a bone marrow transplant from an HIV resistant donor, his doctors said.

Measles vaccine not linked with autism in high-risk kids

(Reuters Health) - 5/3/2019

The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine isn't associated with an increased risk of autism even among kids who are at high risk because they have a sibling with the disorder, a Danish study suggests.

Stopping oral antiviral therapy in chronic hep B possible for some people

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 4/3/2019

A new analysis provides insight into what happens after stopping tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistent viral suppression who took the drug for at least eight years.

Low rates of viral suppression among young black men with HIV

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 1/3/2019

Young black men with HIV have far lower rates of viral suppression than others with HIV, according to results from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP).

Oncology

Lower risk of new primary cancer after carbon-ion radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/4/2019

The risk of subsequent primary cancer is lower after carbon-ion radiotherapy than after photon radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, researchers from Japan report.

Genetic testing under-utilized in ovarian cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/4/2019

Only a minority of women with ovarian or breast cancer undergo recommended genetic testing, a new study suggests.

Surgery after systemic therapy tied to improved outcome of HER2+ advanced breast cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 5/4/2019

Surgery is associated with higher survival rates in women with HER2-positive stage-4 breast cancer treated with systemic therapy, a retrospective study shows.

Umbralisib shows promise in relapsed/refractory marginal zone lymphoma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 3/4/2019

Umbralisib, an investigational oral inhibitor of PI3K-delta, has significant activity against relapsed/refractory marginal-zone lymphoma (MZL) and manageable side effects, according to early results from an ongoing phase 2b trial.

Lenalidomide plus rituximab ups response in relapsed indolent lymphoma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 3/4/2019

In patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, adding lenalidomide to rituximab improves response, according to a placebo-controlled trial.

Gilteritinib improves survival in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 2/4/2019

Treatment with the FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib (Xospata) improves survival for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an FLT3 mutation compared with standard salvage chemotherapy, according to final results of the phase 3 ADMIRAL clinical trial.

Aspirin use tied to reduced liver-cancer risk in chronic hepatitis B

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/3/2019

Daily aspirin therapy is associated with a lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B patients, new findings show.

Fulvestrant-anastrozole combo improves survival in metastatic breast cancer

(Reuters Health) - 27/3/2019

More than six years after a study showed that women with hormone-receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer benefit from a combination of anastrozole and fulvestrant, extended results show the trend has become even more pronounced, but mostly for women not previously exposed to tamoxifen.

Fewer benign biopsies with digital breast tomosynthesis

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 26/3/2019

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) substantially reduces the rate of benign biopsies without hampering cancer detection, according to results from the U.K. National Health Service Breast Screening Program.

Screening ultrasonography does not improve breast-cancer detection

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 21/3/2019

Rates of breast-cancer detection are similar after screening mammography with or without screening ultrasonography, according to an observational study.

Liquid biopsy spots early liver cancer in patients with HBV infection

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 20/3/2019

In high-risk patients with asymptomatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a liquid biopsy shows promise in detecting early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to Chinese and U.S. researchers.

Brain surgery for metastasis tied to distinctive tumor spread

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 19/3/2019

In the absence of whole-brain radiation, neurosurgical resection in patients with brain metastases may boost pachymeningeal seeding, a new study hints.

Better lymphoma outcomes with bendamustine-rituximab combination

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/3/2019

The combination of bendamustine and rituximab provides better progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, and duration of response in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle-cell lymphoma, compared with other regimens, according to five-year results from the BRIGHT follow-up study.

Breast cancer risk tied to DDT varies by exposure timing

(Reuters Health) - 14/3/2019

The once-common pesticide DDT has long been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. Now, research suggests that women's age at first exposure to DDT may influence when in life the risk for breast malignancies is greatest.

Survival low in some after recurrence of cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 12/3/2019

Patients with cutaneous squamous-cell cancer of the head and neck who have disease recurrence after definitive treatment with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy have poor survival, according to a retrospective study.

Consensus guidelines target maintenance therapies for lymphomas after autologous transplant

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 7/3/2019

Maintenance therapy guidelines for lymphoma patients who have undergone autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were recently released by an expert panel from the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Heart disease boosts risk for early death with abiraterone therapy for prostate cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 6/3/2019

Men with advanced prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at increased risk of dying during the first six months of treatment with abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) compared with their peers without pre-existing CVD, according to a retrospective study.

Liquid biopsy on par with tissue testing in advanced lung cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 5/3/2019

In patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the Guardant360 liquid biopsy detects genomic biomarkers as well as standard-of-care tissue genotyping tests but with a faster turn-around time, new research suggests.

Study of AYA-cancer survivors can guide surveillance for new primary neoplasms

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/2/2019

A new study breaks down the excess risk of new primary malignancies in survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers by the type of the first cancer, helping to inform surveillance efforts.

Heart-failure risk increased after adjuvant trastuzumab for breast cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/2/2019

The long-term risk of heart failure nearly doubles after adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in breast cancer patients, according to a retrospective cohort study.

New tool predicts post-surgery problems in head and neck cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 28/2/2019

A new preoperative risk index can help predict short-term adverse events (AEs) following surgery for head and neck cancer, according to Canadian researchers.

Advanced ovarian cancer survival not better with pelvic, paraaortic lymphadenectomy

(Reuters Health) - 27/2/2019

Women with advanced ovarian cancer and normal lymph nodes after complete resection experience no survival benefit from systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy, a randomized study of 647 volunteers has concluded.

Hypofractionated radiotherapy appropriate for low-risk prostate cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 22/2/2019

Hypofractionated radiotherapy (HRT) should be a new practice standard for men with low-risk prostate cancer, based on a secondary analysis of a phase III trial.

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy tops for inoperable early non-small-cell lung cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 21/2/2019

Compared with standard radiotherapy, stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) provides better local control and improved survival in patients with inoperable peripherally located stage 1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to results of the CHISEL study.

Risk profile predicts survival in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 21/2/2019

In patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for stem-cell transplantation, the UK Myeloma Research Alliance Risk Profile (MRP) predicts overall survival across treatments and genetic factors, researchers say.

Tisotumab vedotin shows some promise in early trial of solid tumors

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 19/2/2019

A new cancer drug has shown promise against multiple tumor types, in a first-in-human trial.

Expanding genetic testing for prostate cancer could improve patient management

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/2/2019

Expanding genetic testing beyond current guidelines could better stratify prostate cancer patients for the presence of pathogenic variants and improve their medical management, researchers say.

Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy may improve glioblastoma outcomes

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/2/2019

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 agents may improve outcomes in patients with resectable or recurrent glioblastoma, researchers report.

Stereotactic body radiotherapy shows long-term safety in prostate cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 14/2/2019

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) appears to provide good long-term results and very few toxic effects in certain prostate cancers, according to data from thousands of patients.

Novel radiation therapy promising for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 14/2/2019

A novel, targeted radiation therapy called Lutetium-177 PSMA-617 (LuPSMA) has shown promising clinical activity in men with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positive metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that progressed despite multiple standard therapies.

Histological subtype best outcome predictor in orbital lymphoma

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 8/2/2019

How well orbital lymphoma (OL) patients do depends mainly on which of four subtypes they have, a new case series suggests.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemo relatively safe for treating metastases

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 7/2/2019

Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) appears to be at least as safe as other high-risk surgical oncology procedures, according to a retrospective study.

Focal cryotherapy shows encouraging prostate cancer control

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 31/1/2019

Focal cryotherapy for nonmetastatic clinically significant prostate cancer shows largely good outcomes at up to three years, according to UK researchers.

Hypothermic intraperitoneal chemo relatively safe for treating metastases

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 31/1/2019

Cytoreductive surgery with hypothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) appears to be at least as safe as other high-risk surgical oncology procedures, according to a retrospective study.

'Dense' breast rates steady with changing guidelines and technology

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 30/1/2019

The percentage of digital mammography screens assessed as dense has remained steady with changes in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) guidelines and implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis, according to findings from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC).

Improved head and neck cancer survival with NSAIDs

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 29/1/2019

The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with improved survival in patients with PIK3CA-altered head and neck cancer, researchers report.

Long-lasting menopause symptoms may be tied to slightly higher breast cancer risk

(Reuters Health) - 17/1/2019

Women who experience symptoms of menopause for many years may be slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than women who never had these symptoms, a U.S. study suggests.

Tumor markers limit imaging need in germ-cell tumor surveillance

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 16/1/2019

Tumor markers are a sensitive, radiation-sparing means of surveillance in children and adolescents with malignant germ-cell tumors, according to a retrospective review.

Task force adds aromatase inhibitors to advice on breast cancer chemoprevention in high-risk women

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/1/2019

In addition to tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may now be considered for chemoprevention of breast cancer in women at high risk, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) said today in draft recommendations on the topic.

Life expectancy predicts benefit of immune-checkpoint inhibitors

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 15/1/2019

Late-life expectancy (LLE) is a better measure of survival benefit with immune-checkpoint inhibitors than is the American Society of Clinical Oncology Value Framework (ASCO-VF), according to a new report.

Respiratory medicine

Molecular classifier helps spot idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 10/4/2019

A molecular classifier based on RNA-sequencing data from transbronchial lung biopsies can recognize an expression signature associated with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), the defining pathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

Pembrolizumab may help some with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 2/4/2019

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck) may have ongoing benefits for people with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer expressing programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), extended follow-up of an open-label study shows.

Next-generation sequencing assay detects genetic variants driving cancer, resistance in NSCLC

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 2/4/2019

A novel liquid biopsy based on ultra-deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can detect oncogenic drivers and resistance mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even when tissue biopsy fails to do so, researchers say.

Algorithm automatically detects major thoracic diseases on chest x-rays

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 29/3/2019

A new deep-learning-based automated-detection (DLAD) algorithm accurately classifies major thoracic diseases on chest x-rays, researchers from South Korea report.

Cranial irradiation doesn't boost survival in locally advanced lung cancer

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 26/3/2019

Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) doesn't appear to increase overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), long-term data from a phase 3 trial suggest.

Amphotericin B makes path for lung defense in cystic fibrosis

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 22/3/2019

Amphotericin B treatment may be able to restore the infection-fighting properties of the lungs in cystic fibrosis by standing in for a missing or deficient protein channel, studies in pigs and in human lung tissue suggest.

Lung-cancer screens effective in asbestos-exposed smokers

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 14/3/2019

Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening can detect early lung cancers in smokers with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, new research shows.

Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty may help some with sleep apnea

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - 14/3/2019

Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty could be a useful surgical option in certain patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a retrospective study from South Korea hints.

Poor asthma control linked with kids' school struggles

(Reuters Health) - 11/3/2019

Kids with asthma may struggle more in school when their symptoms aren't well-controlled, and minority students with this breathing disorder are more likely to fall behind than their white counterparts, a U.S. study suggests.

It's never too late to quit smoking before lung surgery

(Reuters Health) - 16/1/2019

Smokers preparing for lung cancer surgery should quit smoking before the operation, and the sooner the better, a new study shows.

Lung cancer screening complications may be higher than expected

(Reuters Health) - 14/1/2019

Invasive follow-up tests to examine abnormalities found with lung cancer screening may lead to more complications and extra healthcare costs than previously thought, a U.S. study suggests.

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